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PROVO, UTAH

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"Marcvs Polvs Venetvs Turns Okbis et Indie Peregrator Pkimvs."

( lopied by permission from a painting bearing the above inscription in the Gallery of Monsignore

Badia in Rome.

[Frontispiece, vol. ii.

THE BOOK OF

SER MARCO POLO

THE VENETIAN CONCERNING THE KINGDOMS AND MARVELS OF

THE EAST

TRANSLATED AND EDITED, WITH NOTES, BY COLONEL SIR HENRY YULE, R.E., C.B, K.C.S.I.,

CORR. INST, FRANCE

THIRD EDITION, REVISED THROUGHOUT IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT DISCOVERIES BY HENRI CORDIER (OF PARIS)

PROFESSOR OF CHINESE HISTORY AT THEECOLE DES LANGUES ORIENTALES VIVANTES ; VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF PARIS ; MEMliER OF COUNCIL OF THE SOCIETE ASIATIQUE ; HON. MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY AND OF THE REGIA DEPUTAZIONE VENETA DI STORIA PATRIA

WITH A MEMOIR OF HENRY YULE BY HIS DAUGHTER AMY FRANCES YULE, L.A.SOC. ANT. SCOT, ETC.

IN TWO VOLUMES— VOL. II. WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

LONDON JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W.

1903

BR,GHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

LIBRARY

PROVO, UTAH

Marco Polo in the Prison of Genoa.

[To follow Title, vol. ii.

CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

Page

Synopsis of Contents iii

Explanatory List of Illustrations xvi

The Book of Marco Polo.

Appendices 503

Index 607

SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.

BOOK SECOND— {Continued).

-<■>-

PART II.

Journey to the West and South- West of Cathay.

Chap. Page

XXXV. Here begins the Description of the Interior of

Cathay ; and first of the River Pulisanghin 3

Notes. 1. Marco's Route. 2. The Bridge Pul-i-sangin, or Lu- ku-k'iao.

XXXVI.— Account of the City of Juju 10

Notes. 1. The Silks called Sendals. 2. Chochau. 3. Bifurca- tion of Two Great Roads at this point.

XXXVII.— The Kingdom of Taianfu 12

Notes. 1. Acbaluc. 2. T'ai-yuan fu. 3. Grape-wine of that place. 4. P'ing-yangfu.

XXXVIII. Concerning the Castle of Caichu. The Golden

King and Prester John 17

Notes. 1. The Story and Portrait of the Roi d'Or. 2. Effemin- acy reviving hi every Chinese Dynasty.

XXXIX. How Prester John treated the Golden King

his Prisoner 21

XL. —Concerning the Great River Caramoran and

the City of Cachanfu 22

Notes. 1. The Kara Mur en. 2. Former growth of silk in Shan- si and Shen-si. 3. The akche or asper.

XLI. Concerning the City of Kenjanfu ... 24

Notes. 1. Morus alba. 2. Geography of the Route since Chapter XXXVIII. 3. Kenjanftc or Si-ngan fu; the Christian monument there. 4. Prince Mangala.

XLI I.— Concerning the Province of Cuncun, which is

RIGHT WEARISOME TO TRAVEL THROUGH . . 31

Note. The Mountain Road to Southern Shen-si, VOL. II. a 2

*-

JV SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS

Page

Chap.

XLI 1 1. —Concerning the Province of Acbalec Manzi . 33

Notes.— I. Geography, and doubts about Acbalec. 2. Further Journey into Sze-ch'wan.

XLIV— Concerning the Province of Sindafu 36

Notes.— 1. Ch'eng-tufu. 2. The Great River or Kiang. 3. The word Comereque. 4. The Bridge-Tolls. 5. Correction of Text.

XLV— Concerning the Province of Tebet 42

Notes. 1. The Part of Tibet and events referred to. 2. Noise of burning bamboos. 3. Road retains its desolate character. 4. Persistence of eccentric manners illustrated. 5. Name of the Musk animal.

XLVI.— Further Discourse concerning Tebet ... 49

Notes.— 1. Explanatory. 2. "Or de Paliolle." 3. Cinnamon.

4. 5. Great Dogs, and Beyamini oxen.

XLVI I.— Concerning the Province of Caindu ... 53

Notes. 1. Explanation from Ramusio. 2. Pearls of Inland Waters. 3. Lax manners. 4. Exchange of Salt for Gold.

5. Salt currency. 6. Spiced Wine. 7. Plant like the Clove, spoken of by Polo. Tribes of this Tract.

XLVIII. Concerning the Province of Carajan ... 64

Notes. 1 . Geography of the Route between Sindafu or Ctieng-tufu, and Carajan or Yun-nan. 2. Christians and Mahomedans in Yun-nan. 3. Wheat. 4. Cowries. 5. Brine-spring.

6. Parallel.

XLIX.— Concerning a further part of the Province of

Carajan 76

Notes. I. City of Talifu. 2. Gold. 3. Crocodiles. 4. Yun-nan horses and riders. Arms of the Aboriginal Tribes. 5. Strange superstition and parallels.

L.— Concerning the Province of Zardandan . . 84

Notes. I. Carajan and Zardandan. 2. The Gold- Teeth. 3. Male Indolence. 4. The Couvade. (See App. L. 8.) 5. Abundance of Gold. Relation of Gold to Silver. 6. Worship of the Ancestor. 7. Unhealthinessofthecli?nate. 8. Tallies. 9. -12. Medicine-men or Devil-dancers ; extraordinary identity of practice in various regions.

LI.— Wherein is related how the King of Mien and Bangala vowed vengeance against the Great Kaan 98

Notes. 1. Chronology. 2. Mien or Burma. Why the Ring may have been called King of Bengal also. 3. Numbers alleged to have been carried on elephants.

LII.— Of the Battle that was fought by the Great K. van's Host and his Seneschal against the King of Mien IOi

Notes. i. Nasntddin. 2. Cyrus 's Camels. 3. Chinese Account of the Action. General Correspondence of the Chinese and Burmese Chronologies.

SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS V

Chap. Page

LI 1 1. —Of the Great Descent that leads towards the

Kingdom of Mien . . . . . 106

Notes. I. Market-days. 2. Geographical difficulties.

LIV. Concerning the City of Mien, and the Two Towers that are therein, one of Gold, and the other of silver 1 09

Notes. 1. Amien. 2. Chinese Account of the Invasion of Burma. Co?nparison with Burmese Annals. The City intended. The Pagodas. 3. Wild Oxen.

LV. Concerning the Province of Bangala . . .114

Notes. 1. Polo's view of Bengal ; and details of his account illustrated. 2. Great Cattle.

LVI. Discourses of the Province of Caugigu . .116

Note. A Part of Laos. Papesifu. Chinese Geographical Ety- mologies.

LVII. Concerning the Province of Anin . . . .119

Notes. 1. The Name. Probable identification of territory. 2. Textual.

LVIII.— Concerning the Province of Coloman . . . 122

Notes. 1. The Name. The Kolo-?nan. 2. Natural defences of Kwei-chau.

LIX.— Concerning the Province of Cuiju . . .124

Notes. 1. Kwei-chau. Phungan-lu. 2. Grass-cloth. 3. Tigers. 4. Great Dogs. 5. Silk. 6. Geographical Review of the Route since Chapter L V. 7. Return to Jufu.

BOOK SECOND.

(Co?itinued.)

-o-

PART III.

Journey Southward through Eastern Provinces of Cathay and

Manzi.

LX.— Concerning the Cities of Cacanfuand Changlu 132

Notes.— 1. PauthieSs Identifications. 2. Changlu. The Burning of the Dead ascribed to the Chinese.

LXL— Concerning the City of Chinangli, and that of

Tadinfu, and the Rebellion of Litan . .135

Notes.— i. T si-nan fu. 2. Silk of Shan-tung. 3. Title Sangon. 4. Agul and Mangkutai. 5. History of Litan" s Revolt.

vi SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS

Chap. PAr'c

LXII.— Concerning the Noble City of Sinjumatu . . 138

Note. The City intended. The Great Canal.

LXIII.— Concerning the Cities of Linju and Piju . . 140 Notes. 1. Linju. 2. Piju.

LXIV.— Concerning the City of Siju, and the Great

River Caramoran M1

Notes. 1. Siju. 2. The Hwang-Ho and its changes. 3. Entrance to Manzi ; that name for Southern China.

LXV— How the Great Kaan conquered the Province

of Manzi M4

Notes. 1. Meaning and application of the title Faghfur. 2. Chinese self-devotion. 3. Bay an the Great Captain.

4. His lines of Operation. 5. The Juggling Prophecy. 6. The Fall of the Sung Dynasty. 7. Exposure of Infants ', and Foundling Hospitals.

LXVI.— Concerning the City of Coiganju . . . .151 Note. Hwai-nganfu.

LXVI I.— Of the Cities of Paukin and Cayu . . . .152 Note. Pao-yng and Kao-yu.

LXVI 1 1.— Of the Cities of Tiju, Tinju, and Yanju . . 153 Notes. 1. Cities between the Canal and the Sea. 2. Yang- chau. 3. Marco Polo's Employment at this City.

LXIX.— Concerning the City of Nanghin . . . .157

Note. Ngan-king.

LXX.— Concerning the very Noble City of Saianfu,

and how its Capture was effected . . .158

Notes. I. and 2. Various Readings. 3. Digression on the

Military Engines of the Middle Ages. 4. Alangonels

of Caur de Lion. 5. Difficulties connected with Polo's Account of this Siege.

LXXI.— Concerning the City of Sinju and the Great

River Kian 170

Notes. I. L-chin hien. 2. The Great Kiang. 3. Vast amount of tonnage on Chinese Waters. 4. Size of River Vessels.

5. Bamboo Tow-lines. 6. Picturesque Island Monasteries.

LXXII. Concerning the City of Caiju 174

Notes. I. Kwa-chau. 2. The Grand Canal and Rice- Transport. 3. The Golden Lsland.

LXXIII.— Of the City of Chinghianfu 176

Note. Chin-kiangfu. Mar Sarghis, the Christian Governor.

LXXIV.— Of the City of Chinginju and the Slaughter of

certain Alans there 178

Notes. I. Chang-chau. 2. Employment of Alans in the Mongol Service. 3. The Chang-chau Massacre. Mongol Cruelties.

SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS vii

Chap. Page

LXXV— Of the Noble City of Suju 181

Notes. i. Su-chau. 2. Bridges of that part of China. 3. Rhubarb ; its mention here seems erroneous. 4. The Cities of Heaven and Earth. Ancient incised Plan of Su-chau. 5. Hu-chau, Wu-kiangy and Kya-hing.

LXXVI. Description of the Great City of Kinsay, which is the Capital of the whole Country of Manzi 185

NOTES. I. King-szi now Hang-chau. 2. The circuit ascribed to the City; the Bridges. 3. Hereditary Trades. 4. The Si-hu or Western Lake. 5. Dressiness of the People. 6. Charitable Establishments. 7. Paved roads. 8. Hot and Cold Baths. 9. Kanpu, and the Hang-chau Estuary. 10. The Nine Provinces of Manzi. 11. The Kaarfs Garrisons in Manzi. 12. Mourning costume. 13. 14. Tickets recordijig inmates of houses.

LXXVI I. —[Further Particulars concerning the Great

City of Kinsay.] 200

(From Ramusio only.)

Notes. 1. Remarks on these supplementary details. 2. Tides in the Hang-chau Estuary. 3. Want of a good Survey of Hang-chau. The Squares. 4. Marco ignores pork. 5. Great Pears: Peaches. 6. Textual. 7. Chinese use of Pepper. 8. Chinese claims to a character for Good Faith. 9. Pleasure- parties on the Lake. 10. Chinese Carriages. II. The Sung Emperor. 12. The Sung Palace. Extracts regarding this Great City from other mediceval writers, Europeatt and Asiatic. Martinis Description.

LXXVI 1 1. Treating of the Yearly Revenue that the

Great Kaan hath from Kinsay . . . .215

Notes. 1. Textual. 2. Calculations as to the values spoken of.

LXXIX. Of the City of Tanpiju and others . . .218

Notes. 1. Route from Hang-chau southward. 2. Bamboos. 3. Ldentification of places. Chang-shan the key to the route.

LXXX. Concerning the Kingdom of Fuju .... 224

NOTES. 1. " Fruit like Saffron." 2. 3. Cannibalism ascribed to Mountain Tribes on this route. 4 Kien-ning fu. 5. Galingale. 6. Fleecy Fowls. 7. Details of the Journey in Fo-kien and various readings. 8. Unken. Introdtiction of Sugar-refining into China.

LXXXL— Concerning the Greatness of the City of Fuju 231

Notes. 1. The name Chonka, applied to Fo-kien here. Cay ton or Zayton. 2. Objections that have been made to identity of Fuju and Fu-chau. 3. The Min River.

LXXXIL— Of the City and Great Haven of Zayton . . 234

Notes. 1. The Camphor Laurel. 2. The Port of Zayton or T'swan-chau ; Recent objections to this identity. Probable

viii SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS

origin of the word Satin. 3. Chinese Consumption of Pepper. 4. Artists in Tattooing. 5. Position of the Porcelain manu- facture spoken of Notions regarding the Great River of China. 6. Fo-kien dialects and variety of spoken language in China. 7. From Ramusio.

BOOK THIRD.

<j>

Japan, the Archipelago, Southern India, and the Coasts and Islands

of the Indian Sea.

Chap. Page

I._Of the Merchant Ships of Manzi that sail upon

the Indian Seas 249

Notes. 1. Pine Timber. 2. Rudder and Masts. 3. Watertight Compartments. 4. Chinese substitute for Pitch. 5. Oars used by Junks. 6. Descriptions of Chinese Junks from other Mediaeval Writers.

II. Description of the Island of Chipangu, and the

Great Kaan's Despatch of a Host against it. . 253

Notes. 1. Chipangu or Japan. 2. Abundance of Gold. 3. The Golden Palace. 4. Japanese Pearls. Red Pearls.

II.— What further came of the Great Kaan's Expedi- tion against Chipangu 258

Notes. 1. Kubldfs attempts against Japan. Japanese Narrative of the Expedition here spoken of . (See App. L. 9.) 1. Species of Torture. 3. Devices to procure Invulnerability.

IV.— Concerning the Fashion of the Idols .... 263

Notes. 1. Many -limbed Idols. 2. The Philippines and Moluccas. 3. The name Chin or China. 4. The Gulf of Cheinan.

V.— Of the Great Country called Chamba . . . 266

Notes. 1. Champa, and Kubldt's dealings with it. (See App. L. 10). 2. Chronology. 3. Eagle-wood and Ebony. Polo's use of Persian words.

VI.— Concerning the Great Island of Java . . . .272

Note.— Java; its supposed vast extent. Kubldt's expedition against it and failure.

VII.— Wherein the Isles of Sondur and Condur are

SPOKEN OF ; AND THE KINGDOM OF LOCAC . . . 276

Notes.— I. Textual. 2. Pulo Condore. 3. The Kingdom of locac, Southern Siam.

VI 1 1.— Of the Island called Pentam, and the City Malaiur 280

Notes.— 1. Bintang. 2. The Straits of Singapore. 3. Remarks on the Malay Chronology. Malaiur probably Pale m bang.

SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS IX

Chap. Page

IX.— Concerning the Island of Java the Less. The

Kingdoms of Ferlec and Basma 284

Notes. 1. The Island of Sumatra : application of the term Java. 2. Products of Sumatra. The six kingdoms. 3. Ferlec or Parldk. The Battas. 4. Basma, Pacem, or Pasei. 5. The Elephant and the Rhinoceros. The Legend of Monoceros and the Virgin. 6. Black Falcon.

X. The Kingdoms of Samara and Dagroian . . . 292

Notes. I. Samara, Sumatra Proper. 2. The Tramontaine and the Mestre. 3. The Malay Toddy-Palm. 4. Dagroian. 5. Alleged custom of eating dead relatives.

XI. Of the Kingdoms of Lambri and Fansur . . ". 299

Notes. I. Lambri. 2. Hairy and Tailed Men. 3. Fansur and Camphor Fansuri. Sumatran Camphor. 4. The Sago-Palm. 5. Remarks on Polo's Sumatran Kingdoms.

XII. Concerning the Island of Necuveran . . . 306

Note. Gauenispola, and the Nicobar Islands.

XIII. Concerning the Island of Angamanain . . . 309

Note. The Andaman Islands.

XIV. Concerning the Island of Seilan . . . .312

Notes. 1. Chinese Chart. 2. Exaggeration of Dimensions. The Name. 3. Sovereigns then ruling Ceylon. 4. Brazil Wood and Cinnamon. 5. The Great Ruby.

XV. The same continued. The History of Sagamoni

BORCAN AND THE BEGINNING OF IDOLATRY . . 316

Notes. 1. Adam's Peak, and the Foot thereon. 2. The Story of Sakya-Muni Buddha. The History of Saints Barlaam and Josaphat ; a Christianised version thereof . 3. High Estimate of Buddha's Character. 4. Ctirious Parallel Passages. 5. Pilgrimages to the Peak. 6. The Pdtra of Buddha, and the Tooth- Relic. 7. Miraculous endowments of the Pdtra ; it is the Holy Grail of Buddhism.

XVI.— Concerning the Great Province of Maabar, which is called India the Greater, and is on the Mainland 331

Notes. 1 . Ma' bar, its definition, and notes on its Mcdiaval History. 2. The Pearl Fishery.

XVII.— Continues to speak of the Province of Maabar . 338

Notes. 1. Costume. 2. Hind~i Royal Necklace. 3. Hindu use of the Rosary. 4. The Saggio. 5. Companions in Death ; the word Amok. 6. Accumulated Wealth of Southern India at this time. J. Horse Importation from the Persian Gulf. 8. Religious Suicides. 9. Suttees. 10. Worship of the Ox. The Govis. 11. Verbal. 12. The Thomacides. 13. Ill- success of Horse-breeding in S. India. 14. Curious Mode of

SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS

Chap. Pagf

Arrest for Debt. 15. The Rainy Seasons. 16. Omens of the Hindus. 17. Strange treatment of Horses. 18. The Devaddsis. 19. Textual.

XVI 1 1.— Discoursing of the Place where lieth the Body of St. Thomas the Apostle ; and of the Miracles

THEREOF .... 353

Notes. I. Mailapur. 2. The word Avarian. 3. Miraculous Earth. 4. The Traditions of St. Thomas in India. The ancient Church at his Tomb; the ancient Cross preserved on St. Thomas's Mount. 5. White Devils. 6. The Yak's Tail.

XIX.— Concerning the Kingdom of Mutfili . . . -359

Notes. 1. MotapallL The Widow Queen of Telingana. 2. The Diamond Alines, and the Legend of the Diamond Gathering.

3. Buckram.

XX.— Concerning the Province of Lar whence the

Brahmans come 363

Notes. I. Abrataman. The Country of Lar. Hindu Character. 2. The Kingdom of Soli or Chola. 3. Lucky and Unlucky Days and Hours. The Canonical Hours of the Church.

4. Omens. 5. Jogis. The Ox-emblem. 6. Verbal. 7. Recurrence of Human Eccentricities.

XXI. Concerning the City of Cail 370

Notes. 1. Kdyal; its true position. Kolkhoi identified. 2. The King Ashar or As-char. 3. Correa, Note. 4. Betel-chezving.

5. Duels.

XXII.— Of the Kingdom of Coilum 375

Notes. 1. Coilum, Coilon, Kaulam, Columbum, Quilon. Ancient Christian Churches. 2. Brazil Wood: notes on the name. 3. Columbine Ginger and other kinds. 4. Indigo. 5. Black Lions. 6. Marriage Customs.

XXIII.— Of the Country called Com ari ..... 382

Notes. I. Cape Comorin. 2. The word Gat-paul.

XXIV.— Concerning the Kingdom Eli 385

Notes. 1. Mount D'Ely, and the City of Hili-Marawi. 2. Textual. 3. Produce. 4. Piratical custom. 5. Wooden Anchors.

XXV.— Concerning the Kingdom of Melibar . . . 389

Notes. 1. Dislocation of Polo's Indian Geography. The name of Malabar. 2. Verbal. 3. Pirates. 4. Cassia: Turbit: Cubebs. 5. Cessation of direct Chinese trade with Malabar.

XXVI. Concerning the Kingdom of Gozurat . . . 392

Notes. 1. Topographical Confusion. 2. Tamarina. 3. Tall Cotton Trees. 4. Embroidered Leather -work.

XXVII.— Concerning the Kingdom of Tana . . . .395

Notes. 1. Tana, and the Konkan. 2. Incense of Western India.

SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS XI

Chap. Page

XXVIII. Concerning the Kingdom of Cambaet . , . 397

Not E . Cam bay.

XXIX. Concerning the Kingdom of Semenat . . . 398

Note. Somnalh, and the so-called Gates of Somnath.

XXX.— Concerning the Kingdom of Kesmacoran . . 401

Notes. I. Kij-Mekrdn. Limit of India. 2. Recapitulation of Polo's Indian Kingdoms.

XXXI. Discourse™ of the Two Islands called Male

and Female, and why they are so called . 404

Note The Legend and its diffusion.

XXXII. Concerning the Island of Scotra .... 406

Notes. 1. Whales of the Indian Seas. 2. Socotra and its former Christianity. 3. Pi7'acy at Socotra. 4. Sorcerers.

XXXIII. Concerning the Island of Madeigascar . . 411

Notes. 1. Madagascar ; some confusion here with Magadoxo. 2. Sandalwood. 3. Whale-killing. The Capidoglio or Sperm- Whale. 4. The Currents towards the South. 5. The Rukh (and see Appendix L. 11). 6. More on the dimensions assigned thereto. 7. Hippopotamus Teeth.

XXXIV. Concerning the Island of Zanghibar. A Word

on India in General 422

Notes. 1. Zangibar ; Negroes. 2. Ethiopian Sheep. 3. Giraffes. 4. Ivory trade. 5. Error about Elephant-taming. 6. Num- ber of Islands assigned to the Indian Sea. 7. The Three Indies, and various distributions thereof. Polo's Indian Geography.

XXXV. Treating of the Great Province of Abash, which

is Middle India, and is on the Mainland . . 427

Notes. I. Habash or Abyssinia. Application of the name India to it. 2. Fire Baptism ascribed to the Abyssinian Christians. 3. Polo's idea of the position of Aden. 4. Taming of the African Elephant for War. 5. Marco' 's Story of the Abys- sinian Invasion of the Mahomedan Low- Country, and Review of Abyssinian Chronology in connection therewith. 6. Textual.

XXXVI Concerning the Province of Aden . . . 438

Notes. 1. The Trade to Alexandria from Lndia via Aden. 2. " Roncinsa deux selles." 3. The Sultan of Aden. The City and its Great Tanks. 4, The Loss of Acre.

XXXVII.— Concerning the City of Esher .... 442

Notes. 1. Shihr. 2, Frankincense. 3. Four-horned Sheep. 4. Cattle fed on Fish. 5. Parallel passage.

XXXVIII. Concerning the City of Dufar .... 444

Notes. 1. Dhofar. 2. Notes on Frankincense.

xii SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS

Chap. Page

XXXIX.— Concerning the Gulf of Calatu, and the City

SO CALLED 449

Notes. i. Kalhdt. 2. " En fra terre." 3. Maskat.

XL. Returns to the City of Hormos whereof we

spoke formerly 45 1

Notes. 1. Folds distances and bearings in these latter chapters. 2. Persian Bad-girs or wind-catching chimneys. 3. Island of Kish.

BOOK FOURTH.

-<j>-

Wars among the Tartar Princes, and some Account of the Northern Countries

I. Concerning Great Turkey 457

Notes. 1. Kaidu Khan. 2. His frontier towards the Great Kaan.

II. Of certain Battles that were fought by King Caidu against the Armies of his Uncle the Great Kaan 459

Notes. I. Textual. 2. "Araines." 3. Chronology in connection with the events described.

III.— tWhat the Great Kaan said to the Mischief done

by Caidu his nephew 463

IV.— Of the Exploits of King Caidu's valiant Daughter . 463

Note. Her name explained. Remarks on the story.

V. How Abaga sent his Son Argon in command against

King Caidu 466

(Extract and Substance.)

Notes. I. Government of the Khorasan froritier. 2. The His- torical Events.

VI.— How Argon after the Battle heard that his Father

WAS DEAD AND WENT TO ASSUME THE SOVEREIGNTY AS WAS HIS RIGHT 467

Notes. 1. Death of ' Abaka. 2. Textual. 3. Ahmad Tigudar. VII.— fHOW ACOMAT SOLDAN SET OUT WITH HIS HOST AGAINST

his Nephew who was coming to claim the throne that belonged to him 463

t Of chapters so marked nothing is given hut the substance in brief.

SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS Xlll

Chap. Page

VIII.— fHow Argon took Counsel with his Followers

ABOUT ATTACKING HIS UNCLE ACOMAT SOLDAN . . 468

IX. tHow the Barons of Argon answered his Address 469

X. tThe Message sent by Argon to Acomat . , . 469

XI. How Acomat replied to Argon's Message . . . 46g

XII. Of the Battle between Argon and Acomat, and

the Captivity of Argon 470

Notes. 1. Verbal. 2. Historical.

XIII. How Argon was delivered from Prison . . .471

XIV. How Argon got the Sovereignty at last . . . 472

XV. tHow Acomat was taken Prisoner .... 473

XVI. How Acomat was slain by Order of his Nephew . 473

XVII. How Argon was recognised as Sovereign . . . 473

Notes. 1. The historical circumstances and persons named in these chapters. 2. Arghiiris accession and death.

xviii. how klacatu seized the sovereignty after argon's

Death . 475

Note. The reign and character of Kaikhdtu.

XIX. How Baidu seized the Sovereignty after the

Death of Kiacatu ........ 476

Notes. 1. Baidu'' s alleged Christianity. 2. Ghdzdn Khan.

XX.— Concerning King Conchi who rules the Far

North 479

Notes. 1. Kaunchi Khati. 2. Siberia. 3. Dog-sledges. 4. The aniffial here styled Erculin. The Vair. 5. Yugria.

XXL— Concerning the Land of Darkness . . . .484

Notes. 1. The Land of Darkness. 2. The Legend of the Mares and their Foals. 3. Dumb Trade with the People of the Darkness.

XXI L— Description of Rosia and its People. Province

of Lac 486

Notes. 1. Old Accounts of Russia. Russian Silver and Rubles. 2. Lac, or Wallachia. 3. Oroech, Norway {?) or the Waraeg Country (?)

>sXIII. He begins to spfak of the Straits of Constan- tinople, BUT DECIDES TO LEAVE THAT MATTER . . 490

t Of chapters so marked nothing is given but the substance in brief.

xlv SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS

Cha». Page

xxiv.— concerning the tartars of the ponent and their

Lords 49°

Notes. I. The Comanians ; the Alans ; Majar ; Zic ; the Goths of the Crimea ; Gazaria. 2. The Khans of Kipchak or the Golden Horde ; errors in Polo's list. Extent of their Empire.

XXV.— Of the War that arose between Alau and Barca,

and the Battles that they fought .... 494

(Extracts and Substance.)

Notes.— 1. Verbal. 2. The Sea of Sarai. 3. The War here spoken of. IVassdfs rigmarole.

XXVI.— tHow Barca and his Army advanced to meet

Alau 495

XXVII.— tHow Alau addressed his followers . . . -495

XXVIII. tOF the Great Battle between Alau and Barca . 496

XXIX. HOW TOTAMANGU WAS LORD OF THE TARTARS OF THE

PONENT ; AND AFTER HIM TOCTAI 496

Note. Confusions in the Text. Historical circumstances con- nected with the Persons spoken of Toctai and Noghai Khan. Symbolic Messages.

XXX. |Of the Second Message that Toctai sent to

Nogai 498

XXXI.— tHow Toctai marched against Nogai .... 499

XXXII. tHow Toctai and Nogai address their People,

AND THE NEXT DAY JOIN BATTLE 499

XXXIII.— tThe Valiant Feats and Victory of King Nogai XXXIV. and Last. Conclusion

APPENDICES.

499 500

A. Genealogy of the House of Chinghiz to the End of the Thirteenth

Century c0r

B. The Polo Families :

(I.) Genealogy of the Family of Marco Polo the Traveller . 506 (II.) The Polos of San Geremia c0y

C. Calendar of Documents relating to Marco Polo and his Family 510

t Of chapters so marked nothing is given but the substance in brief.

SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS

D. Comparative Specimens of the Different Recensions of Polo's

Text

E. Preface to Pipino's Latin Version ......

F. Note of MSS. of Marco Polo's Book, so far as known :

General Distribution of MSS

List of Miniatures in two of the finer MSS

List of MSS. of Marco Polo's Book, so far as they are known .

G. Diagram showing Filiation of Chief MSS. and Editions of Marco

Polo

H. Bibliography :

(I.) Principal Editions of Marco Polo's Book.

(II.) Bibliography of Printed Editions ....

(III.) Titles of Sundry Books and Papers treating of Marco Polo and his Book. ......

I. Titles of Works quoted by Abbreviated References in this Book

K. Values of Certain Moneys, Weights, and Measures occurring in this Book ..........

L. Supplementary Notes to the Book of Marco Polo

XV

Page

522 525

526

527

530

552

553 554

574 582

590

593

1. The Polos at Acre.

2. Sorcery in Kashmir.

3. Paonano Pao.

4. Pamir.

5. Number of Pamirs.

6. Site of Pein.

13. Sir John Mandeville.

7. Fire-arms.

8. La Couvade.

9. Alacan

10. Champa.

11. Ruck Quills.

12. A Spanish Marco Polo.

Index

607

EXPLANATORY LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

TO VOLUME II.

-<S>-

INSERTED PLATES AND MAPS.

To face Title. Portrait bearing the inscription " Marcus Polvs Venetvs Totivs Orbis et Indie Peregrator Primvs." In the Gallery of Monsignor Badia at Rome ; copied by Sign. Giuseppe Gnoli, Rome. ,, page ii. Medallion, representing Marco Polo in the Prison of Genoa, dictating his story to Master Rustician of Pisa, drawn by Signor Quinto Cenni from a rough design by Sir Henry Yule. , ,,28. The celebrated Christian Inscription of Si-ngan fu.

Photolithographed by Mr W. Grigg, from a Rubbing of the original monument, given to the Editor by the Baron F. von Richthofen .

This rubbing is more complete than that used in the first edition, for which the Editor was indebted to the kindness of William Lockhart, Esq. ,, 78. The Lake of Tali (Carajan of Polo) from the Northern End. Woodcut after Lieut. Delaporte, borrowed from Lieut. Garnier's Narrative in the Tour du Monde. ,, 80. Suspension Bridge, neighbourhood of Tali. From a photograph by M. Tannant. , no. The City of Mien, with the Gold and Silver Towers. From

a drawing by the Editor, based upon his sketches of the remains of the City so called by Marco Polo, viz., Pagan, the mediaeval capital of Burma. ,, 131. Itineraries of Marco Polo. No. V. The Indo-Chinese Countries. With a small sketch extracted from a Chinese Map in the possession of Baron von Richthofen, showing the position of Kien-ch'ang, the Caindu of Marco Polo. ,, 144. Sketch Map exhibiting the Variations of the Two Great

Rivers of China, within the Period of History. 182. The City of Su-chau. Reduced by the Editor from a Rubbing of a Plan incised on Marble, and preserved in the Great Confucian Temple in the City.

The date of the original set of Maps, of which this was one, is uncertain, owing to the partial illegibility of the Inscrip- tion ; but it is subsequent to a.d. iooo. They were engraved on the Marble a.d. 1247. Many of the names have been obliterated, and a few of those given in the copy are filled up from modern information, as the Editor learns from Mr. Wylie to whom he owes this valuable illustration. 193- Map of Hang-chau fu and its Lake, from Chinese Sources. The Map as published in the former edition was based on a Chinese Map in the possession of Dr. W. Lockhart, with

EXPLANATORY LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

XV11

some particulars from Maps in a copy of the Local Topo- graphy, Hang-Chau-fn-chi, in the B. Museum Library. In the second edition the Map has been entirely redrawn by the Editor, with many corrections, and with the aid of new materials, supplied by the kindness of the Rev. G. Moule of the Church Mission at Hang-chau. These materials embrace a Paper read by Mr. Moule before the N. China Branch of the R. As. Soc. at Shang-hai ; a modern engraved Map of the City on a large scale ; and a large MS. Map of the City and Lake, compiled by John Sking, Tailor, a Chinese Christian and Catechist;

The small Side-plan is the City of Sl-NGAN FU, from a plan published during the Mongol rule, in the 14th century, a trac- ing of which was sent by Mr. Wylie. The following references could not be introduced in lettering for want of space :

1. Yuen-Tu-Kwan (Tauist Monastery).

2. Chapel of Hien-ning Prince.

3. Leih-Ching Square {Fang).

4. Tauist Monastery.

5. Kie-lin General Court.

6. Ancestral Chapel of Yang-Wan -Kang.

7. Chapel of the Mid-year Genius.

8. Temple of the Martial Peaceful King.

9. Stone where officers are selected.

10. Mews.

11. Jasper-Waves Square {Fang).

12. Court of Enquiry.

13. Gate of the Fang-Yuen Circuit.

14. Bright Gate.

15. Northern Tribunal.

16. Refectory.

17. Chapel of the Fang- Yuen Prince.

18. Embroidery manufactory.

19. Hwa-li Temple.

20. Old Superintendency of Investiga-

tions.

21. Superintendent of Works.

22. Ka-yuen Monastery.

23. Prefectural Confucian Temple.

24. Benevolent Institution.

25. Temple of Tu-Ke-King.

26. Balustrade enclosure.

27. Medicine-Bazar Street.

28. Tsin and Ching States Chapel.

29. Square of the Double Cassia Tree.

N.B. The shaded spaces are marked in the original Min-Keu "Dwellings of the People."

To face page 212. Plan of Southern Part of the City of King-sze (or Hang-chau), with the Palace of the Sung Emperors. From a Chinese Plan forming part of a Reprint of the official Topography of the City during the period Hien-Shun (1265-1274) of the Sung Dynasty, i.e. the period terminated by the Mongol conquest of the City and Empire. Mr. Moule, who possesses the Chinese plan (with others of the same set), has come to the conclusion that it is a copy at second-hand. Names that are underlined are such as are preserved in the modern Map of Hang-chau. I am indebted for the use of the original plan to Mr. Moule ; for the photographic copy and rendering of the names to Mr. Wylie. ,, 240. Sketch Map of the Great Ports of Fo-kien, to illustrate the identity of Marco Polo's Zayton. Besides the Admiralty Charts and othe^ well-known sources the Editor has used in forming this a " Missionary Map of Amoy and the Neighbour- ing Country," on a large scale, sent him by the Rev. Carstairs Douglas ; LL.D., of Amoy. This contains some points not to be found in the others. VOL. II. b

XV 111 EXPLANATORY LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

To face page 246. Itineraries of Marco Polo, No. VI. The Journey through Kiang-Nan, Che-kiang, and Fo-kien. ri. Map to illustrate Marco Polo's Chapters on the Malay ,, ,, 312. J Countries.

1^2. Map to illustrate his Chapters on Southern India, /-i. Sketch showing the Position of Kayal in Tinnevelly. ,, ,, 374. J 2. Map showing the Position of the Kingdom of Ely in

t Malabar. ,, ,, 440. Aden, with the attempted Escalade under Alboquerque in 15 13, being the Reduced Facsimile of a large contemporary Wood Engraving in the Map Department of the British Museum. (Size of the original 42^ inches by 19^- inches.) Photolitho- graphic Reduction by Mr. G. B. Praetorius, through the assistance of R. H. Major, Esq. ,, 474. Facsimile of the Letters sent to Philip the Fair, King of France, by Arghun Khan, in a.d. 1289, and by Oljaitu, in a.d. 1305, preserved in the Archives of France, and reproduced from the Recueil des Documents de V Epoque Mongole by kind permis- sion of II.H. Prince Roland Bonaparte. »i » 595* Some of the objects found by Dr. M. A. Stein, in Central Asia. From a photograph kindly lent by the Traveller.

WOODCUTS PRINTED WITH THE TEXT. Book Second. Part Second.

Page 4. The Bridge of Pulisanghin, the Lu-ku-kHao of the Chinese, reduced from a large Chinese Engraving in the Geographical work called Ki-fu-thung-chi in the Paris Library. I owe the indication of this, and of the Portrait of Kublai Kaan in vol. i. to notes in M. Pauthier's edition.

,, 5. The Bridge of Pulisanghin. From the Livre des Merveilles.

,, 7. Bridge of Lu-ku-k'iao. From a photograph by Count de Semalle.

,, 9. Bridge of Lu-ku-k'iao. From a photograph by Count de Semalle.

,, 19. The Roi d'Or. Professed Portrait of the Last of the Altun Khans or Kin Emperors of Cathay, from the (fragmentary) Arabic Manuscript of Rashiduddiri s History in the Library of the Royal Asiatic Society. This Manuscript is supposed to have been transcribed under the eye of Rashiduddin, and the drawings were probably derived from Chinese originals.

,, 26. Plan of Ki-chau, after Duhalde.

,, 30. The Cross incised at the head of the Great Christian Inscription of Si-ngan fu (A.D. 781) ; actual size, from copy of a pencil rubbing made on the original by the Rev. J. Lees. Received from Mr. A. Wylie.

,, 38. Diagram to elucidate the cities of Ch'eng-tu fu.

,, 39. Plan of Ch'eng-tu. From Marcel Monnier's Tour d'Asie, by kind per- mission of M. Plon.

,, 41. Bridge near Kwan-hsien (Ch'eng-tu). From Marcel Monnier's Tour cPAsie, by kind permission of M. Plon.

,, 47. Mountaineers on the Borders of Sze-ch'wan and Tibet, from one of the illustrations to Lieut. Garnier's Narrative (see p. 48). From Tour du Monde.

,, 50. Village of Eastern Tibet on Sze-ch'wan Frontier, From Mr. Coopers Travels of a Pioneer of Commerce.

EXPLANATORY LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS XIX

Page 51. Example of Roads on the Tibetan Frontier of China (being actually

a view of the Gorge of the Lan t'sang Kiang). From Mr. Cooper's Travels of a Pioneer of Commerce. ,, 55. The Valley of the Kin-sha Kiang, near the lower end of the Caindu

of Marco Polo. From Lieut. Gamier in the Tour du Monde. ,, 58. Salt Pans in Yun-nan. From the same. ,, 61. Black Lolo.

,, 62. White Lolo. From Deveria's Frontikre Sino-annamite. ,, 65. Pa-y Script. From the T'oung-Pao. ,, 68. Garden-House on the Lake of Yun-nan-fu, Yachi of Polo. From

Lieut. Gamier in the Tour du Monde. ,, 71. Road descending from the Table- Land of Yun-nan into the Valley of

the Kin-sha Kiang (the Brius of Polo). From the same. ,, 73. " A Saracen of Carajan," being the portrait of a Mahomedan Mullah

in Western Yun-nan. From the same. ,, 74. The Canal at Yun-nan fu. From a photograph by M. Tannant. ,, 78. " Riding long like Frenchmen," exemplified from the Bayeux Tapestry.

After Lacroix, Vie Militaire du Moyen Age. 83. The Sang-miau tribe of Kwei-chau, with the Cross-bow. From a

coloured drawing in a Chinese work on the Aboriginal Tribes, belonging

to W. Lockhart, Esq. ,, 90. Portraits of a Kakhyen man and woman. Drawn by Q. Cenni from a

photograph (anonymous). ,, 108. Temple called Gaudapalen in the city of Mien {i.e. Pagan in Burma),

erected circa A.D. 1160. Engraving after a sketch by the first Editor,

from Fergusson's History of Architecture. ,, 112. The Palace of the King of Mien in modern times (viz., the Palace at

Amarapura). From the same, being partly from a sketch by the first

Editor. ,, 118. Script Pa-pe. From the T'oung-Pao. ., 121. Ho-nhi and other Tribes in the Department of Lin-ngan in S. Yun-nan,

supposed to be the Anin country of Marco Polo. From Gamier in the

Tour du Monde. ,, 125. The Koloman tribe, on borders of Kwei-chau and Yun-nan. From

coloured drawing in Mr. Lockharfs book as above (under p. 83). ,, 129. Script thai of Xieng-hung. From the T 'oung-Pao. ,, 130. Iron Suspension Bridge at Lowatong. From Gamier in Tour du

Monde. ,, 131. Fortified Villages on Western Frontier of Kwei-chau. From the

same.

Book Second. Part Third.

155. Yang-chau : the three Cities under the Sung.

156. Yang-chau : the Great City under the Sung. From Chinese Plans

kindly sent to the present Editor by the late Father H. Havret, S.J. , Zi-ka-wei. 162. Medieval Artillery Engines. Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, are Chinese. The first four are from the Encyclopaedia San- Thsai-Thou-hoei (Paris Library), the last from Amyot, vol. viii.

Figs. 6, 7> 8 are Saracen, 6 and 7 are taken from the work of Reinaud and Pave", Du Feu Gre'geois, and by them from the Arabic MS. of Hassan al Raumah {Arab Anc. Fonds, No. 1127). Fig. 8 is from Lord Munster's Arabic Catalogue of Military Works, and by him from a MS. of Rashiduddin's History. VOL. II. b 2

XX EXPLANATORY LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

The remainder are European. Fig. 9 is from Pertz, Scriptores, vol. xviii., and by him from a figure of the Siege of Arbicella, 1227, in a MS. of Genoese Annals (No. 773, Supp. Lat. of Bid. Imp.). Fig. 10 from Shaw's Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages, vol. L, No. 21, after B. Mus. MS. Reg. 16, G. vi. Fig. 11 from Pertz as above, under A.D. 1 182. Fig. 12, from Valturius de Re Militari, Verona, 1483. Figs. 13 and 14 from the Poliorceticon of Justus Lipsius. Fig. 15 is after the Bodleian MS. of the Romance of Alexander (a.d. 1338), but is taken from the Gentleman's Magazine, 3rd ser. vol. vii. p. 467. Fig. 16 from Lacroix's Art an Moyen Age, after a miniature of 13th cent, in the Paris Library. Figs. 17 and 18 from the Emperor Napoleon's Etudes de rArtillerie, and by him taken from the MS. of Paulus Santinus (Lat. MS. 7329 in Paris Library). Fig. 19 from Professor Moseley's restora- tion of a Trebuchet, after the data in the Mediaeval Note-book of Villars de Honcourt, in Gentleman 's Magazine as above. Figs. 20 and 21 from the Emperor's Book. Fig. 22 from a German MS. in the Bern Library, the Chronicle of Justinger and Schilling. Page 169. Coin from a treasure hidden during the siege of SlANG-YANG in 1268-73, and lately discovered in that city. ,, 172. Island Monasteries on the Yang-tzu kiang ; viz. :

1.