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OBSERVATIONS oN THE

METHOD OF PLANTING AND CULTIVATING

SUGAR-CANE

GEORGIA AND SOUTH-CAR OLINA, rOGETMER WITH THE, PROCESS OF BOILING AND GRANULATING; AND A

Description of the fixtures requisite for Grinding and Boiling +

IN A LETTER FROM

THOMAS SPALDING, Esq. To Major General Thomas Pinckney, WITH AN APPENDIX.

CHARLESTON, S. ©.

¢ PRIRTED AND SOLD BY J. HOFF AT HIS W HOLESALE AND RETAIL

BROAD-STREE T—BY FRE DERICK &. FELL,

BOOK-STORE, 117, SAVANNAH-—HOBBY & BUNCE, THURSTEN, GEOHGETOWN-——AND BY ISAAC

AUGUSTA——SAMU EL

SMITH, CAMDEN.

1816. ( Copy-Right Secured. )

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Waeranweanennns ARAN NAA ARAN AAA AAR AA nn en en venennenene

Published by order of the Agricultural Society of South-Carolina. j

JOHN CHAMPNEYS, President, | May 17, 1816. i

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Charleston, 22d, April, 1816.

Dear Sir, The success which has attended the en. deavours lately made to establish the Sugar-cane in Georgia, affording some hopethat the advantages of this acquisition might be extended to this State; and hav- ing learned that the state of Georgia was principally indebted for this valuable addition to her staple com- modities to the intelligence and persevering exertions of Mr. Thomas Spalding of Sappelo-Island, whose patriotic spirit and liberality of sentiment I had pre- viously experienced in a public line, I took the liber. ty of requesting the favour of him to communicate the result of his experience in the cultivation and manu- facture of Sugar. The effect of his friendly compli- ance is the letter which I have now the pleasure of transmitting to you for the information of the Society, who I trust will consider it of sufficient importance to the Agriculture of this Country to direct its imme-

diate publication. I am aware that instructions on

this subject are to be found in various accessible pub- lications, but I do not think that any can be so useful or satisfactory to our fellow-citizens asthe result of ex- periments made in our own soil and climate. Ialsotake the liberty, Sir, of submitting through you, to the society an account of the culture and manufac- ture of Sugar in old Spain, extracted from Valcarcel, a Spanish writer on agriculture, of highreputation. My reasons for troubling the Society with this extract are, that not having met inthe United States withany copy of this work except my own, I do not think that it ts

generally known here; and the similarity of climate of the districts in Spain wherein Sugar is cultivated, to that of South-Carolina and Georgia, induces me to think that this account will convey more useful infor- mation than details of its culture in situations where ice and frosts are unknown.

Unwilling torely on my own imperfect knowledge of the Spanish language, I am indebted for this trans- lation to our countryman Mr. Poinsett, whose genes val information and long residence as a public charac- ter in the Spanish dominions insure the accuracy of the version.

I Remain, very Respectfully, Dear Sir, Four Faithful and Obt. Servt. THOMAS PINCKNEY,

JOHN CHAMPNEYS, Esq. President of the

Agricultural Society, South-Carolina.

‘Sapelo Island, Near Darian, Dear Sir,

I nAve postponed so long writing to you on the subject of Sugar Planting, that I feel some- thing of that reluctance, which arises from a long neglected duty, in now beginning this Letter: And yet my delay has arisen from an anxiety to procure correct information as to the amount of Sugar per Acre, made, on Major Butler's Plantation; my own Crop, having been so much reduced by the dry sea- son of last summer, as to present a very unfavor- able result, and a very uninviting one to a beginner in Sugar. Resting rather upon your indulgence than this apology for my delay, I will proceed to state what appears to me alone necessary to be known, in regard to the Sugar-cane of this quarter; and which the experience of now ten years, has furnished me an opportunity of acquiring.

It was in the year eighteen hundred and six, that Mr, Couper of St. Simons, knowing my desire to make an experiment on the Sugar-cane, sent me u few that had been growing in his garden. From these plants, I the next year cultivated in the field an acre and a half; and from this, increased my quantity as fast as the difficulty of preserving them in the Winter would allow me.

For some years this difficulty appeared almost in- surmountable. Ifthey were housed, or covered with earth, the heat often injured them;—If they were left to stand too long, or only stacked in the open field the cold destroyed them; and the injury from the one or other cause depentted upon the nature of the season whether it was a wet or a dry one, and whether it was a moderate or a severe winter. To injuries arising out of these causes, we shall always in Some measure be subject, in spite of all the know-

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ledge that experience may acquire:—For it is the commencement of the operation of that insensible, though universal line, which limits the production of certain plants to certain climates. The judgment and experience of man may extend for a little, but cannot extend ¢his line very far. 1 consider these observations not unnecessary; for in every new un- dertaking, we are alarmed at accidents, without recol. lecting, that all men are subject to them, particular. ly so in new enterprizes.

Three years ago, for the first time, I planted my Sugar-cane in the Fall, beginning the 20th of October, and continuing to plant as fast as possible, until } finished my Crop. As I did not lose one plant in a thousand, this period was determined on in the pub- lic opinion, as well as in my own, to be the best; and is the only time of planting in which you are certain, of preserving your Cane. All difficulties, as to pre- serying Cane Plants, would end here, if it were not that where it is cultivated as a crop, it will be impos- sible to plant more than a portion of your Cane, be- fore you have to employ all your people in Manu- facturing, and preparing your Sugar for Market. We have then to seek some other means of preserving at least, a portion of our Cane Seed for Winter and Spring planting. And the means I should recom- mend, are these:—To make a long stack fourteen feet wide, and as high as the cane will make it, say five feet, with the butts down; beginning with a log, or abed of earth, to lay your plants upon;—these stacks, preserved for planting, to be made in the cen- tre of each acre and sufficient to plant the acre. When the stack is finished, 1 would throw first some of the cane blades to the side, and then earth, nearly up to the top. After the stack has stood some time in this way, and the 20th of December approaches, (which often comes fraught with cold,) I would recommend a few old hands being employed to throw a little earth

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over the stacks of Cane, two or three inches thick. The reason for not doing this at an earlier period, is, that before then there is no great danger from se. vere frost; and by which time the cane blades in stack have been well wilted, and there will conse- quently be less risk of generating a degree of heat, which would make the plants sprout and grow in the stacks; than which, nothing is more injurious to the cane seed. It will be understood that the cane stacks are broad and thin: This mode is borrowed from Louisiana, where they are called Matrasses; which from their flat form, is a more appropriate name, Whatever quantity of cane is required for seed (and it will take one acre to plaht twenty) should either be planted or secured @s directed, in the course of the month of October; for the most sensible of frost is the bud; and the same degree of cold which ruins the buds or eyes, even ripens and sweetens the body of the Cane.

Having gotten through the very important point of preserving the Cane Seed; I will proceed to state what in my opinion is necessary to the growing and cultivation of the Cane. For many years I was myself convinced that our best description of Ham- mock Land, within ten or fifteen miles of the Sea, would be found the most to be relied upon for Sugar; and that after this the River Swamp, as being shield- edand protected, insome degree, by the water that surrounds them, as well, as by an innate warmth which exists in those alluvion soils, from the quan- tity of undecayed vegetable matter which they con- tain. The drought of last Summer has, in some de- gree, shaken this preference; and if we are liable to a recurrence, we should transpose the order of pre- ference. But it is still, only uponthese two descrip. tions of land, I would think of cultivating Sugar- cane as acrop. In the West-Indies they make, by a very laborious process, deep trenches at four feet

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apart: and at three fect distance in the range of these trenches, put four or five Cane plants, not less than ten inches lower than the general surface, though the Plants are only covered with one or two inches of soil; drawn down from the ridges, which making the trenches have produced. Making these trenches is very laborious, and however they may

suit the soil and climate of the West-Indies, are not

at all adapted to the soil and climate of this Coun- try; for we have few soils that admit of sinking so deeply into them, without meeting with something dead and inert in vegetation. Add to which, the plants by being so low, do not feel the early warmth of Spring, and are kept back from shooting; and many of them, from causes to me inexplicable, perish in the ground. This I experienced in the Spring of Eighteen Hundred and Thirteen, having been induced to try the West-India manner of pre. paring my Cane Lands, by the advice of some gentlemen from that quarter. This failure induced me to try the directly opposite mode of making the next season, low ridges at the usual distance of five feet apart, flat at top, and about feur or five inches raised above the general surface of the Land. A trench is opened in the centre of this ridge, and the Cane Plants cut into lengths of about two feet each, are placed in the trenches, so that they touch each other and make a complete line of cane seed:—They are then covered with about two inches of soil; and this depth of covering is all-sufficient, to preserve them from any degree of cold existing on the sea coast of Georgia or Carolina. In this mode of plant- ing | am now universally followed; and there is no difference of opinion on the subject. The motive for cutting the cane plants into lengths of two feet, is to lay them more conveniently in the trench, keep- ing the alternate eyes, on the side, so as to come up through the Earth more easily—In Louisiana they

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plant their Cane in some instances so near, as to have their trenches at two feet apart, and making the plants touch, as directed in our mode; but this has been found in.Georgia to dwarf the cane, without one useful end; for cane so planted will not sucker and the parent plant is generally the worst in a hill of cane. I have therefore mentioned this mode of planting only to express my disapprobation of it— The cane planted as I have directed, and in the months of October, November, or February (for we shall generally be engaged in November, December, and January, with manufacturing our Sugar) will be- gin to come up about the first of March, but not all before the last of April. It should be, when young, most carefully weeded; and as the Summer advances, the land should be dug as deep as possible between the rows, for I know no plant that delights so much in a loose and penetrable mould, noris itto be wondered at, for the roots present a complete nett work over the whole surface. From this cause, I have found potatoes the best possible preparation for Sugar-cane. As the cane grows, it requires to be worked in the same manner and about as often as cotton; so much so, that for three years last past, my Overseer has given each year eight hoeings to my cane as well as to my cotton; and the Negroes go over the same quantity of land precisely. The limits to be put then to the culture of Sugar, does not arise in this coun- try from the difficulty of either planting or attending it, but arises from the limited period which we have for manufacturing the Sugar:—and here indeed we are confined within narrow bounds.

For the purpose of saving labour as much as pos- sible, and saving time which is still more necessary, our fields, if the lands are high, should have roads through them, at four tasks distance from each other, that ox carts, drawn by two or four oxen each, may approach as near as possible to the people who are

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cutting and preparing Cane for the Mill. If the fields are clear of logs, and are not divided by ditches, the carts may approach still nearer the cutters.

If cane is cultivated in swamps, the fields must be divided as much as possible by Navigable Canals for bringing up the cane to the Mill; for if the cane has to be carried more than two tasks to a punt, bat- teau, or flat, by the negroes, the labor will be found beyond measure distressing. In order to impress the truth of this upon your mind I will point to facts, The year before last I left thirty acres of my cane uncut in the fields, for the want of additional carts; which want I could not supply for fear of the British Barges which endangered the Inland Navigation to such a degree, as to make every boat that ventured upon the water liable to capture. The present crop at Major Butler’s Plantation, although there was a good Canal, in every square, (and to my own know- ledge the cane was never brought above five tasks to the flats) sixty hands were employed in cutting, loading, and emptying these flats for the Manufactur- ing of three thousand weight of Sugar per day. There were generally even more than this number employed, and the result was not at all times equal to this; and it was the want of a supply of cane for the Mill that the result was not greater. For a good Mill should grind, if kept at work night and day, (which it ought to be) and one good set of boilers, should be able to reduce into Sugar, at least five thousand gallons of juice, making upon the average four thousand weight of Sugar.

In a flat country like this, we are compelled toraise our Mill-Houses higher than they do in the West-In- dies, where they have often little else to da than to place their Mill-House on the side of a hill, which gives elevation enough to the Mill to allow the juice from the bed, which is covered with sheet-lead, and receives it as the Mill expresses it, to ryn by means

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of a gutter, covered also with sheet-lead, into a clari- fyer, containing three hundred gallons, which stands in the boiling-house. The boiling-house is placed as near as possible to the Mill-house, as well to save the trouble and expense of a lengthy gutter, as to prevent the risk of the cane-juice souring by pass. ing far, before it is cleared of its impurities by the operation of lime upon it. In the clarifyer, froma pint to a quart of good lime is applied to each hun. dred gallons of juice. The quantity of lime depends upon the ripeness of the cane, and the facility with which it parts with its mucilaginous matter. Expe-

fiment must determine the quantity, and the smallest

possible quantity, which will leave the juice after half an hour’s settling, of a clear amber colour, a lit- tle inclined to green, is to be fixed upon. The mu- cilage of the cane being precipitated by the lime to the bottom of the clarifyer, the clear juice is then drawn off, by means of spiles an inch or two above the bottom, and runsinto your largest or grand copper, by means of a short gutter; so, that as it is necessary, your Mill should be high enough to run your juice into your clarifyer, so also it is necessary, that your clari- fyer should be high enough to run the purified juice into your boilers by means of the gutters. These observations are necessary for the understanding the description of the Mill-house and Mill which follows.

The mill-house that I have erected, is forty-one feet in diameter, of tabby, and octagonal in its form. In Louisiana, they are generally of wood, and square, and this is the form of Major Butler’s. The danger of fire, the superior durability, and the better appear- ance of the buildings, should make us prefer either tabby or brick. The outer walls of this building are sixteen feet high. Upon these walls run a well connected plate, and over it is erected an octagonal roof, meeting in a point. Within about seven feet distance from the outer wall, is 4 circular inner

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wall, which rises ten feet; and from this wall to the outer one is a strong joint work, which is covered with two-inch Planks for a Tread for the Mules, Horses, or Oxen, that work the Mill. _The Plate No. 4, will show the Ground Plan of this building: And Plate No. 2, a representation of the outer and inner walls, with the platform for the Horses, which connects them, but without shewing the roof or the full elevation of the outer wall. It will be undér- stood too, that there are two several doors, at op- posite sides of the Mill-House in the lower story ; the one for bringing cane to the Mill, and the other for carrying out the expressed cane; and these doors are six feet wide. There is also a door in the upper story, with an inclined plane leading to it, to carry up the Mules, Horses, or Oxen that work the Mill. Plate No. 3, is the very drawing of a Mill which I procured from Louisiana, and which served to direct me in the erection of my own Mill. 1 only enlarg- ed the middle roller to thirty inches in order to in- crease the velocity of my Mill, and to admit of my mules walking. This change has been greatly ap- proved of. In the West-Indies the mill-rollers are are smaller, and the circle in which the cattle move, so great, that to keep up the same degree of velocity in the Mill, they are obliged to canter the mules. This of itself (as it is continued four hours at a time) is enough to destroy the animals. Whether this prac- tice is the result of an ancient prejudice, or has grown out of the greater hardness of the cane of the West- Indies, I know not; though it is probable, that both causes have had its effect in keeping up, what upon every principle of reason, as well as from my very limited experience, I think a bad one.

The Mill as represented, is raised within the cir- cular wall, ona strong foundation of masonry, eight feet high, so as to be within two feet of a level with the Horse-way; and this may be seen by reference

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to the Plate. Thecostof this building, will of course depend upon the cost of the materials and labour _ where.it is erected, but cannot be very great any _ where. ‘he cost of the Mill should be nearly as Wt follows:

sf to six hundred pounds, with steel-points and _ _ inks for them to runin; with smaller gudgeons - for the main-roller, say _ : . $150

One, two feet and a half in diameter—Two, two

feet in diameter and thirty inches long, each

: with three wheels, and iron wedges for secur- ___ ing the cases, would cost in New-York about 600

_ The wooden work of the Mill, with plantation assistance found, should not cost more than 4100

For wrought-Iron gudgeons, to weigh from five |

7 3850 Thize cases and wheels, were charged to me, at - M‘Queen’s Foundary, at 84 cents per pound. , ' From what I have seen of Mr. Johnson’s Work in _ Charleston, and from what I have heard of Mr. John- son himself, I regretted much that I had not got my work done there, The cases, in order to increase _ ‘the weight, are made unnecessarily thick by founders: Mine are two inches thick at the end, and two and a half in the centre. This swell in the centre, is made for the purpose of wedging the wood at the two ends, and thus preventing the rollers either sinking or ris- g upon the gudgeons.

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I see no reason however, why the cases, if of good fe tal, should be more than one inch thick at the end, "and one and a halfin the centre. It will be under- > stood, that the turning of the cases was a separate charge of thirty dollars each, but is included in the UU” ount stated.

_ JI must again recommend Mr. Johnson’s Foundary, as it is of great importance, in case of accidents, to i +idip c

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have the remedy at hand, and not ata distance. The Mill described will give, with great ease three hun- dred gallons an hour: Mine has given three hundred and sixty by a watch.

Plate No. 4, is the last Iron Mill, imported by Major Butler. It is a beautiful Machine, and works well; but the objection to it is, that the Rollers are too small. To get over this, Major Butler’s Agent has gearedit, and made the oxenworkbelow. Whether it is the gearing, or the distance the oxen are placed | from the point of resistance, a this I believe to ] | be the case) it goes extremely heavy, taking six yoke of oxen to do little more than four mules do in Mills of the common construction. The cost of this Mill, in

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England, was - - - - £ 315 Importing charges, fifty per centum, 457 10 Duty, about : - - - 105

£557 10 |

Or some where about two thousand five hundred dollars. To a man indifferent to expense, this Mill, | with rollers of an increased size, might be desirable ; 4 or he might order the three rollers without the frame } works, which would cost in England, from one hun- dred to one hundred and twenty guineas; which at the common charges of importation, would make the cost but little more than a wooden mill with tron cases. These mills, however, have never made their way into Jamaica, except in one or two instances, and were then attached to Steam Engines. The cause | " suppose, (a well grounded objection) from the difii- culty of repairing or correcting any injury. This, Sir, is all that I need say of the Sugar-Mill. To be able to execute it, the workman must see it, for al- though the most simple Machine in all its parts, that J know of, great strength is tts character; and so es- sential a property of it that nothing but personal ob-

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servation can sufficiently impress this truth—the first Mill I built; one of the gudgeons broke in the first _ hour’s work. __ _The boiling-house which, as stated before, is plac- ed as near as possible to the mill-house, with a gut- ter leading t/'bugh the walls of the mill-house, con- _ veys the cane-juice, as fast as it runs from the mill-bed "into the receiver of three hundred gallons standing | at the end of the boiling-house. Whenever the re- _ ceiver is full, which should be in an hour, the lime is put into it, at the rate, as before directed, of from mene pint to one quart to the hundred gallons. In the mean time, the juice is discharged into a second _ ¥eceiver which stands beside the first, and is of the _ Same form and contents. While the first receiver is " precipitating its mucilaginous matter, and is purify- ing itself, to be passed into the boilers, the second is Hilling and preparing to undergo the same process, eben all the boilers are full, and not before, the fire 38 kindled under the smallest, and is communicated “through the medium of arches from one to the other, " mntil it passes the last boiler, and enters the chim- Rey which is placed without the house. A set of boilers consists of either four or five; gencrally however four; and for a crop of one hun- ' dred acres of cane, should contain: No. 4, three “hundred and twenty gallons,—No. 2, three hundred " Gallons,—No. 3, two hundred gallons,—No. 4, one ' ‘hundred gallons. The form I approve of, és a se- -mispheriod, with the bottom a little compressed. And for common dimensions, without a strict regard to quantity, [ would recommend No. 4, diameter, 62 inches, depth, 30 inches, No. 2, diameter, 60 ‘inches, depth 28 inches; No. 3, diameter, 52 in ches, depth, 24 inches, No. 4, diameter, 42 inches, epth, 22 inches. A set of coppers of three dimensions, importing et he copper, and having them made in Savannah or

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Charleston, would cost about five hundred and fifty

dollars. I have a set made in Savannah which has

cost me that sum; though J have given more than | ought for the making them here, rather than encoun- ter the risk of disappointment by sending North. The order I gave for my copper, in which I was followed by several gentlemen, was forfour copper bottoms--No. 1, 4 feet 6 inches—No. 2, 4 feet 6 inches—No. 3, 4 feet—No. 4, 3 feet—to weigh each, one hundred pounds; and ten sheets of copper for sides, each 40 pounds; and 75 pounds, of assorted copper rivets, making an order of 875 pounds of copper. I have given in Savannah twenty cents for the manufactory of this copper. Itis a high price—fifteen would have

been enough: It would be done in New-York for ten. |

I have added to my boilers a rim of thin copper, at an angle of forty-five degrees, to keep it from boiling over. Lead is used for this purpose in the West-Indies, but it burns away so soon as to cost more than copper. In Louisiana, they depend generally upon wood or brick, a bad plan, byt not easily reme- died, as they use Iron Boilers; and you cannot attach either copper or lead to iron without a very expen- sive process. The cost of these brims, attached to the four boilers, is about one hundred dollars, making the whole amount six hundred and fifty-dollars: Anda set of boilers, of these dimensions (worked night and day) should produce four thousand weight of Sugar every twenty-four hours. These boilersare built into a solid mass of brick-work on one side of the boiling-house. The fire being lead from the small- est boilers, under which it burns, upon grating-bars, which admit the ashes to fall into the ash-pit below. The heat is so kept in by the Mason-Work, that the second and third boilers boil as furiotisly as the first, and so would the fourth but for the frequent supply of cold juice which is drawn from the receiver into it.

Opposite to the Boilers, on the side and end of the

house, are ranged eight Coolers, made of cypress two inch plank, ef an oblong form, and ten inches deep, which contain a tierce of Sugar each. These coolers receive the syrup out of the track or smallest boiler, and in them it granulates as it cools,

For the operation of boiling or reducing the cane juice into sugar, I feel that no precept can be of any use. No rule has yet ever been found to regulate the time of boiling, as it depends upon the quality or ripeness of the cane. Bryan Higgins, a great Chymist, has improved the Furnace, and mended the form of the boilers, but he has not been able to give a standard, by which to determine the point at which syrup w ould granulate, If such a standard ex-

_ isted as to cold syrup, it could not be applied to a fluil heated to the highest possible degree. He left this part of the process where ke found it, in

the hands of the negroes, and in better hands it could not be placed. As the observations of negroes are limited to a few subjects, their péréeptions become clearer and more distinct. For nature has kindly or- dered it, that our faculties should be improved in

_ proportion as they are exercised. Few white men,

therefore, from the West-Indies, know any thing about Sugar-boiling ; but by a few days experimenting

- upon a small parcel, ourselyes, and our overseers,

and negroes, acquire all that is necessary to be

_ known.

The greatest enemy we have to guard againts at

first is our boiling. If we strike (which is the term used for taking off the syrup from the boiler) as soon as it looks thick, and its great bubbles have subsided

_ into small ones, which form round the sides of the

boiler about the size of abead, with something ofan oily appearance ;—If the syrup when cold, becomes too thin and will not granulate; at the next attempt, increase a little the period which is allowed between

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this subsidement of ebullition and the striking of the syrup. In one or two attempts’ you will not fail to find the point at which it will granulate; and you may in future depend upon the eye of your negroes mea. suring distinctly that point; provided your Mill, your Gutters, your Clarifyers, your Kettles, and your Skim. mers are kept washed, scoured, snd scalded: for no Mahometan, with his seven daily Ablutions, is a great. er enemy to dirt than sugar is. I am prolix and pointed in this direction; and I intend to be so, for all the failures I have ever known in my neighbour. hood, have arisen from a neglect of cleanliness. And when we reffect that copper and Jead are the instru. ments we are employing, we should rather rejoice than repine at the unwearied attention to Cleanliness which this operation requires.

To elucidate by example the facility of aquiring a knowledge of sugar making, it is only necessary to State, that this year Mr. M‘Queen of Savannah had with him a man from the West-Indies who had been an overseer thefe# He was making bad sugar, and but little of it, when I brought him one of his black men, who had been but one week in my boiling. house, and he improved both the quality and the quantity of the sugar. From the boiling-house, the sugar then a thick turbid mass, combined with its molasses, is conveyed into the curing-house by tubs. The curing-house is united to the boiling-house, and makes with it the form of an L or T Plate No. 5. Inthe curing-house, strong joists cross from side to side, at fifteen inches apart, resting at the end upon an abutment wall. The bottom of the house, is two inclined planes, of two feet descent, that discharges the molasses into a gutter in the mid- die. This gutter also inclines a little to one end, where it empties itself into a close cistern containing two thousand gallons.—The cistern may be made of ©ypress plank, rammed at the bottom and sides with

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clay. For preserving the molasses clear, the cistern should be covered over with plank, and have only a scuttle to take the molasses out. For the conveni- ence of moving your casks, there should be a plank- ed tread-way over the joists from one end to the

other. . ; The boiling-house should be lighted by many win- dows: and the whole length of the roof, should have ising from its top, a latticed Cupola, to allow the ‘Steam to pass freely off. The steam rises in such volumes, as greatly to impede and effect every ope- ‘ration in the boiling-house, consequently we should ' Yentilate and lightit well. Directly the reverseshould be observed of the curing-house. The greatest diffi- | culty inthe speedy and radical cure of the sugar, ari- ses in our climate from the cold, which thickens and Coagulates the molasses before it is discharged from the sugar. To prevent this, we should Pot or Barrel » the sugar from the cvolers as soon as possible and while it is yet warm; and have our curing-houses lighted witha very few windows. If convenient, ater- “race roof should be preferred, which keeps in the heat: stoves also would facilitate the sugar dischar- ging its molasses. Without attention to these points our sugar will acquire a bad character, and it will be in vain that a few will labour’ to preserve, if all do not attend to it—Nothing more occurs to me on the subject of either the apparatus or process for making sugar. Whatever else is to be learned, must be ac- quired by personal inspection; for the eye conveys more instruction in all the manual arts in one hour,

than a volume of description.

_ Any Mill-Wright will be able, after seeing a sugar Mill, to make one with appendages: and any man, white or black, will be able to hang the Kettles. The whole expenditure for my sugar apparatus, or _ Mr. Carnochan’s in my neighbourhood, (the building “of which are executed neatly in Tabby) and the cop-

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pers of the size given, allowing a half dollar a-day for every negro employed, is shortof five thousand dol. lars.

For several years, from small quantities of sugar made from small portions of land, I had been lead to believe that two thousand weight of Sugar per acre might be expected. In the year 1814, I had from about eighty acres, one hundred and fifteen tierces, under the disadvantage of having a broken boiler which lost me a great deal of cane-juice. This pro- duct rather confirmed my previous impressions; but the year 1815 has greatly disappointed my expecta. tions. I had growing of plant cane, one hundred and four acres; and of rattoon. cane, about eighty acres. The drought was so great that there was not from this hundred and eighty acres above one hun- dred and twenty that could be cut for the Mill, and a great deal of that was not two feet long: the re- sult was eighty two tierces or about sixty thousand weight of sugar, being five hundred weight to the acre. This was upon hammock land, which every year before the last had brought cane of five feet length for the Mill.” Major Butler, (this being the first year that he has cultivated sugar as a crop) had at his river’ swamp plantation one hundred and ten acres of cane growing; ten acres of which was put up for seed, besides the dwarf cane not fit for the Mill from the rest of the field. ‘The result has been one hundred and forty tierces of sugar, supposed to be one hundred and forty thousand pounds, or about fourteen hundred pounds per acre. Even this re- sult has not equalled my expectations; for it will be difficult to find or difficult to grow a more beautiful field of cane in this country than that of Major Butler’s; particularly that part of it which grew upon the inte- rior squares of the field, and which has a great portion of undecayed vegetable matter upon its surface. The clay lands.near the banks of the river, after the yege-

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table mould has been worked off by a few years of cultivation, produce very indifferent cane. ‘The superiority of the mossey lands over the clay lands of the river, did not greatly surprise me; for Lord Dondonald in his treatise upon Chymistry as applied to agriculture, recommends peat as manure for cane ; but he does, what nothing but a mind heated to ex- cess would have thought of, recommends that that peat should be preparedin Scotland and sent to Jamai- ca for the purpose. There has been little sugar made for sale by any other person than Major Butler and myself; and none that would give a more favorable result upon any scale than the two crops I have quoted.—In the coming year in this quarter, there will be but little ncrease of sugar-cane. The last Winter has been so severe that a great portion of the seed-cane has been destroyed; add to this, the prices which Rice and Coi- ton bring have a tendency to slacken enterprise ; while the drought of the last Summer has filled men with well-founded alarm, as to the cultivating of su- gar upon those lands, which if hot the most produc- tive as to quantity, have heretofore been deemed the most secure from our dread enemy frost, Its op- eration upon the sugar-cané is extraordinary, yet without it, it would in many instances be scarcely * possible for us to make sugar atall. While it is mo- derate, it only checks'the vegetation of the cane and ripens the juices and leaves them as rich (if its in- crease bas been gradual between the period of blight- ing the cane, which should take place the first of No- vember, and the freezing of the stock, which com- monly takes place somewhere about the seventeenth of December) as it ever is in any climate, After that the cane begins gradually to decline in quality, until the ice becomes so severe as to burst the rind of the cane, when in a few days it loses every de- »

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gree of its sweetness : this has for the two last years taken place on the night of the seventh of January.

Here then we have the length of period that we are allowed in preparing our Sugar-crop for Market. That is, from the last of October to about the tenth of January. The length of period might be increas- ed by stacking or matrassing our cane in the fields: And this I understood used to be done in Louisiana, but has been given up from the increase of labor which it produces. The cultivation of Sugar-cane will, I conceive, greatly improve the quality of our up-lands, The quantity of vegetable matter which the leaves afford, is greater than that of any plant we know of; and the decay of these leaves, if they are worked into the soil, must improve it. But what is of much more importance, as the quantity we can take off is so very limited, we shall improve in the cultivation of our fields, and be forced to adopt that great instrument of fruitfulness to soils and of wealth to a people, a rotation of crops. The rotation upon high-lands that I would think best is, first